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Specialists from BMW, HOERBIGER, the Graz University of Technology, and HyCentA develop a hydrogen combustion process which achieves remarkable efficiency for internal combustion engines for passenger cars.

Efficient Dynamics

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Specialists from BMW, HOERBIGER, the Graz University of Technology, and HyCentA
develop a hydrogen combustion process which achieves remarkable efficiency for
internal combustion engines for passenger cars.

Munich. The BMW Group Forschung und Technik, in cooperation with researchers in
Graz and Vienna, Austria, has succeeded in developing a dedicated hydrogen
combustion engine with diesel-like geometry and progressive H2 high-pressure
direct injection technology. The result is an efficiency level of up to 42
percent, on par with that of the best turbodiesel engines. Partners in the
"H2BVplus" project, which is sponsored by Austria's Federal Ministry for
Transportation, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT), are the Institute for
Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics at Graz University of
Technology, HyCentA Research GmbH in Graz, as well as HOERBIGER ValveTec GmbH
in Vienna.

"In light of the limited availability of fossil fuels and the rising
environmental impact from harmful emissions, we are convinced that the H2
combustion engine will assume an important position in the product portfolio of
future alternative drive concepts. It will crucially contribute to safeguarding
our individual mobility at the high level the customer expects," said Professor
Dr. Raymond Freymann, Managing Director of BMW Forschung und Technik GmbH.
The newly developed combustion system combines the strengths of spark-ignition
and diesel concepts, while utilizing the favorable combustion properties of
hydrogen, and thereby achieves efficiency values that easily bear comparison
with even those of state-of-the-art turbodiesel engines. In the process, the
engineers based their work on the joint EU "HylCE" project, during which
maximum specific powers of up to 100 kilowatt per liter of displacement were
demonstrated for a spark-ignition hydrogen combustion process.

Engineers from the BMW Group Forschung und Technik developed a new cylinder
head for hydrogen operation based on a production diesel engine. The combustion
chamber of the engine was configured jointly by BMW and the Graz University of
Technology using numerical flow simulation. HOERBIGER ValveTec GmbH designed
high-pressure injectors for direct injection of hydrogen into the combustion
chamber with pressures of up to 300 bar, nearly 4500 psi. These injectors were
tested and calibrated at the Hydrogen Center Austria, which also provided the
hydrogen infrastructure. Extensive test runs on the test benches of the
Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics of the Graz
University of Technology have shown that a combination of spark-ignition and
diesel combustion systems using surface ignition subsequently followed by a
diffusion type of combustion is the ideal solution with respect to engine
efficiency. As a result, the entire characteristic engine map range of a
typical passenger car engine can be covered and top level efficiency values are
achieved. Attendant benefits are the increase in specific power and reduction
of fuel consumption. Thus, even in an early concept phase this combustion
system matches the efficiency values of the currently best turbodiesel engines
at a maximum of 42 percent. As the exhaust gas heat of internal combustion
engines can be used well due to the high temperature levels, further increases
in overall efficiency will be possible in the future as a result of waste heat

BMW Forschung und Technik GmbH is a 100% subsidiary of BMW AG and has been
responsible for research within the BMW Group since 2003. Its subject areas
cover Vehicle Technology, CleanEnergy (hydrogen technology), EfficientDynamics
(intelligent energy management/alternative drive systems), ConnectedDrive
(driver assistance/active safety) and ITDrive (IT and communications
technology). Its legal independence as a limited company guarantees creative
freedom and maximum flexibility. Global access to new trends and technologies
is ensured by an internationally established network with branches in the USA
(Palo Alto, CA and Clemson, SC), Japan (Tokyo) as well as liaison offices in
France with Eurécom (Sophia Antipolis) and in Germany (Saarbrücken) with the
German Research Centre for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI GmbH).

HOERBIGER ValveTec GmbH is a company of the HOERBIGER Group. HOERBIGER is
active throughout the world as a leading player in the fields of compression
technology, automation technology and drive technology. The focal points of its
business activities include key components and services for compressors,
gas-powered engines, and turbomachinery, hydraulic systems and piezo technology
for vehicles and machine tools, as well as components and systems for shift and
clutch operations in vehicle drive trains of all kinds.

The core objective of the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and
Thermodynamics at the Graz University of Technology is to carry out innovative
and internationally recognized teaching and research within the interrelated
fields of energy, engine, transport and environment, and in particular to
contribute to solving environmental problems. Within the section "Innovative
Combustion Systems" new combustion processes are developed not only for
conventional fuels, but also for alternative fuels (e.g. natural gas) and
energy carriers (e.g. hydrogen), which are becoming more and more important. In
general, these research activities focus on all relevant targets such as
maximum efficiency and power density as well as minimum emissions.

The HyCentA (Hydrogen Center Austria) promotes the use of hydrogen as a
regenerative energy carrier. With its hydrogen test center and the first
hydrogen delivery station in Austria, the HyCentA acts as a focal point and
information platform for hydrogen-oriented research and development activities.

For questions please contact:

Corporate Communications

Daniel Kammerer, BMW Technology Communications, Production and Alternative
Drive Trains
Telephone: +49-89-382-25506, Fax: +49-89-382-23927

Ludwig Schönefeld MA, Director Corporate Communication, HOERBIGER Holding AG
Telephone: +41-41-560-7579, Fax: +41-41-560-7570

Alice Senarclens de Grancy, Spokeswoman of the Graz University of Technology
Telephone: +43-316-873-6006, Fax: +43-316- 873-6008

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